熊本医療センター附属看護学校 H.30 英語 考察

〔T〕 長文問題です。

 Perhaps the finest nature writer of the twentieth century was Rachel Carson. 


She was born on May 27, 1907, on a family farm near Springdale, Pennsylvania. 


She (p)[ @ exploring A time B around C a lot of D spent ] her family's farm as a child. 


(p) She spent a lot of time exploring around her family's farm as a child. 

An (a)avid reader, she began writing stories at age eight and had her first story published at age ten. 



In her teens, she loved writers who wrote about the natural world, particularly the ocean.


At college, she originally studied English but later switched to biology. 


She graduated at the second highest level in 1929, and she earned a master's degree in zoology at graduate school in 1932. 


She wanted to continue her studies but was forced to leave school to find a full-time job in order to support her family, for in 1935 her father died suddenly, @( leaving ) Carson to care for her aging mother.  


* ,(コンマ)leaving〜(分詞構文)=and left〜。leave人to〜「人に〜を任せる」

 She found a position at the U.S. 


Fish and Wildlife Service in Washington, D.C., where she worked as a marine scientist, (b)primarily as a writer and editor. 



She analyzed and reported field data on fish populations, and wrote pamphlets.


Using her research and consultations with marine biologists, she also wrote articles for newspapers.  彼女の研究と、海洋生物学者との相談をもとに、彼女は、新聞の記事も書いた。

 In 1941, several years of writing, mainly essays and pamphlets, resulted A( in ) “Under the Sea Wind,” which received excellent reviews.   1941年、数年にわたる執筆、主にエッセイとパンフレットが、「Under the Sea Wind」をもたらし、それは、優れた評価を受けた。

*result in〜「(〜という)結果になる(結果をもたらす)」

(x)It marked a major turning point in Carson's writing career. 


*(x)It は、ほぼ前文の内容。要約すれば、That her book published in 1941 was highly valued. 

A clever scholar working in government during World War II, Carson took B( advantage ) of the latest scientific material for her next book, “The Sea Around Us,” which was (c)nothing short of a biography of the sea. 

第二次世界大戦中に政府で働いていた賢い学者であるカーソンは、彼女の次の本「The Sea Around Us」のために、最新の科学的資料を利用した。それは、まさに、海の伝記に他ならなかった。

*take advantage of〜「〜を活用する」。nothing short of〜「まさに〜に他ならない(=almost)」

It became an international best seller, and Rachel Carson became the trusted public voice of science in America. 


In her books on the sea, Carson wrote about how currents change, how temperature affects sea life, and how erosion impacts not only shore lines but fish populations and tiny micro-organisms. 


Even in 1950's, Carson's ecological vision of the oceans shows her embrace of a large environmental ethic which could lead to the sustainability of nature's *interactive and *interdependent systems. 



 Looking at evidence of the widespread misuse of organic chemical *pesticides by government and industry, Carson unwillingly spoke out not just about the immediate threat to humans and non-human nature from careless (i)chemical exposure, but also questioned government and private science's assumption that human (d)domination of nature was the correct course for the future. 


*(i)chemical exposure化学薬品の露出。具体的には、後出のDDTの散布などがある。


In “Silent Spring,” her most well-known book published in 1962, Carson asked the hard questions about C( whether ) and why humans had the right to control nature, to decide who lives or dies, to poison or to destroy non-human life. 

1962年に出版された彼女の最も有名な本「Silent Spring」では、カーソンは、厳しい疑問を投げかけている。人間が自然を制御し、誰が生きるか死ぬか、毒をまくか、或いは、人間以外の生命を破壊するかを決定する権利を持つかどうか、そして、なぜ持つのかについて、

*and why 以下は、humans had the right to control natureという完全な文。

She described (ii)how DDT entered the food chain and accumulated in the fatty tissues of animals, including human beings, and caused cancer and genetic damage. 


A single application on a crop, she wrote, killed insects for weeks and months−not only the targeted insects but countless more−and remained *toxic in the environment even after (Y)it was thinned by rainwater. 


*(Y)のitは、接続詞after以降の主語であるから、afterの前の主節の主語を指す。よって、文頭のA single application on a cropである。

Carson concluded that DDT and other pesticides had utterly harmed animals and (e)contaminated the world's food supply.


*(e)contaminate汚染する(= pollute) 

 D( Needles ) to say, the book brought her a long loud cry of great anger from the chemical industry. 


Appearing on a TV documentary about “Silent Spring” shortly before her death, she remarked, “Man's attitude toward nature is today critically important (Q)[ @ acquired A because B have C simply D we] a fateful power to alter and destroy nature. 

死の直前に「Silent Spring」についてのテレビドキュメンタリーに出演すると、彼女は、述べた。「自然に対する人間の態度は、今日非常に重要です。それは単に我々が自然を変え、破壊する宿命的な力を身につけたからです。

*(Q)simply because we have acquired。直後のa fateful powerがhave acquiredの目的語。

But man is a part of nature, and his war against nature is inevitably a war against himself. 


We are challenged as mankind has never been challenged before to prove our maturity and our *mastery, not of nature but of ourselves.”


Her words are still echoing in our hearts and minds. 


(注) interactive 双方向性の interdependent 相互依存的な pesticide 殺虫剤 toxic 有毒な mastery 支配(力)

(1) Carson was forced to leave school because she had to care for her mother after her father’s sudden death. 

(2) In her books on the sea, she wrote about sea life affected by temperature, and shore lines, fish populations and tiny micro-organisms impacted by erosion. 

(3) In a TV documentary, Carson said that we are a part of nature, so our war against nature naturally means that we should fight against ourselves. 

〔U〕 以下の会話文の空所に入れるのに最も適当なものを、4つの選択肢から選ぶ問題です。

A : I heard you’re moving to New York.  


R : Yes. @( I’ve got an offer ) in a suburb of New York. 


A: Oh, that’s great! Have you already been to your new office? 

   おぉ、やったね! もう新しい会社には行ってみたのかい?

R : Yes, but A( only once to go in for the exam ). 


A : I see. How did you like its atmosphere? 


R : I like it very much. Everybody there seemed very kind and friendly. 


A : Oh, that’s good. Anyway, I’m going to miss you so much.

   おぉ、それはよかった。 とにかく、君がいなくなるのはとても寂しいよ。

R : Me too. B(Let’s keep in touch ).

   僕もだよ。  連絡取り合おうね。

A : Yeah. C(Don’t forget to drop me a line ) when you settle down. 


R : Trust me. I won't. I'll be sure to contact you. 


A : Do you have my address? 


R : Well, I have your e-mail address. 


A : All right! D(I look forward to hearing from you soon ). Good luck! 



@は、直後のHave you already been to your new office?から、Rに新しい職が決まったことがわかります。Aは、直前で、Have you already been to your new office?と聞かれ、Yes, but〜と答えていることから、「行ったのには行ったのだけれど…」といった感じになります。Bは、会話の流れから、Let’s keep in touch.「連絡取り合おうね」が一番ふさわしいでしょう。これに続くCは、後ろに、when you settle down. 「君が落ち着いたら」とあることからも、Don’t forget to drop me a line「僕に連絡するの忘れないでね」となるでしょう。Dは、直前の会話で、AがRのアドレスを持っているかどうかの確認をしていますので、

I look forward to hearing from you soon.「君からすぐに連絡が来るのを待ってるよ」となるでしょう。

〔V〕 以下の英文の空所に入れるのに最も適当なものを、4つの選択肢より選ぶ問題です。

1. I regret (    ) my time and money in my youth. 

 @wasted  Ahave wasted  Bhad wasted  Chaving wasted 

*regretは、「〜を後悔する」という他動詞で、目的語を必要としますが、目的語は名詞形でなくてはなりません。@〜Cの選択肢の中で、名詞形はただ一つ、Chaving wasted(完了動名詞)だけですので、何ら迷うことはありません。全文は、次のようになります。

I regret having wasted my time and money in my youth.


2. This fountain pen was very expensive. I paid (    ) than 25,000 yen.

 @no more  Amot more  Bno less  Cnot less


no less than 25,000 yen


not less than 25,000 yen


同じようにも見えますが、notが単に事実を述べているのに対し、noには感情が込められています。前文のvery expensiveという内容から考えて、Bのno lessがふさわしいでしょう。全文は次のようになります。

This fountain pen was very expensive. I paid no less than 25,000 yen.

この万年筆は、とても高かった。             私は(実に)25000円も支払った。 

3. You can get there in thirty minutes by (    ).

 @train  Aa train  Bthe train  Ctrains

*by のあとの不特定な交通・通信機関などを表わす名詞は無冠詞です。よって、@が正解。特定の時間に発着する交通・通信機関を表わす場合は定冠詞がつきます。全文は次のようになります。

You can get there in thirty minutes by train.  電車で30分でそこへ着くことができます。

4.Last week they visited Kyoto,(   )they enjoyed themselves, doing a lot of sightseeing.

 @that  Awhat  Bhow  Cwhere

*空所の後は、they enjoyed themselvesというSVOの完全な文で、代名詞の省略はありません。よって、関係代名詞ではなく、関係副詞のBかCとなります。空所の直前はKyotoという場所ですから、Cのwhereが入ります。全文は次のとおりです。

Last week they visited Kyoto, where they enjoyed themselves, doing a lot of sightseeing.


5. Our teacher suggested that we (    ) for the coming examination. 

 @prepare  Aprepared  Bmust prepare  Ccould prepared

*意味的には、Our teacher suggested that we should prepare for the coming examination.「私たちの先生は、私たちが、来たるべき試験に備えるべきだと提案した」ということでしょう。


Our teacher suggested that we prepare for the coming examination. 


6. She (    ) in just now. She is probably in the upstairs.

 @has come  Acame  Bhad come  Cwould come 

*just now「ちょうど今」は過去時制です。A以外にはあり得ません。全文は次のようになります。

She came in just now. She is probably in the upstairs.

彼女はちょうど今来た。    彼女はおそらく上の階にいる。

7. He went out of the room (    ) our noticing it.

 @unless  Aalthough  Bdespite  Cwithout

*空所の後は、our noticing itという名詞形です。よって空所には前置詞が入りますから、BかCに絞られます。@にも前置詞の用法はありますが、答えがB、Cのいずれでもない場合に考えます。BとCをそれぞれ空所に入れてみます。

He went out of the room Bdespite our noticing it.


He went out of the room Cwithout our noticing it.



8. She was (    ) kind as to see me off at the airport.

 @such  Aas  Bso  Ctoo

空所には、kindという形容詞を修飾する副詞が入ります。後ろに形容詞+as to doという形を伴い、同程度を表す副詞はsoのみです。全文は次のようになります。

She was so kind as to see me off at the airport.


9. My CD player got broken yesterday. I'll have to have it (    ) at a nearby electric shop. 

 @repair  Arepaired  Brepairing  Cto repair

*have (get)+O+過去分詞という第5文型が思い浮かべば、迷わずAが選べるでしょう。haveやgetは第5文型を導く代表的な動詞です。ここでは、itがO(目的語)、repairedがC(補語)となります。目的語と補語には、主語と述語の関係があり、be動詞で繋ぐことができます。この場合it is repairedとなります。正解はAです。

My CD player got broken yesterday. I'll have to have it repaired at a nearby electric shop. 

私のCDプレーヤーが昨日壊れてしまった。 私はそれを近くの電気店で修理してもらわなければならない。

10. Our train was delayed because of the rain, and we had to wait (    ) three hours.

 @another  Aother  Bmore  Cthe other


Our train was delayed because of the rain, and we had to wait another three hours.



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